AIUB Journal of Business and Economics

Volume: 17, Issue: 2

[Covid-19 Special Issue]

Publication Date: 25th  MAY, 2021

ISSN 1683-8742 (Print)               ISSN (online): 2706-7076

Analyzing Students perception on effectiveness of E-learning during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Bangladesh Study

Dr. Carmen Zita Lamagna and Anisa Sultana


The purpose of this study is to explore the learners’ perception on online learning in the midst of COVID-19 pandemic. This research applied quantitative method. The subject of this research is the students of private universities in Bangladesh. Two hundred and sixty students completed 29 Likert-type items survey on ICT Infrastructure, Equivalence, Engagement, Assessment, and Future of on-line classes ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree), Data was analyzed through SPSS version 20 and several statistical tests has been done. The study found that Higher Education Institutions’ (HEIs) ICT infrastructure is highly supportive and maintaining effective communication with teachers, students and parents, however very less students found on-line classes are equivalent in Quality, Engagement and assessment in comparison to face to face classes. Moreover, many participants are found to be disengaged due to the fear, anxiety and stress caused by COVID-19. Learning from home is also disruptive due to complex home environment. Overall, participants strongly believe that on campus study is irreplaceable for better learning, engagement, assessment and interaction. Yet, most of the students expect the mix-method or blended teaching learning facilities as a new normal in education sector after the pandemic.

Keywords: E-learning, HEIs, ICT Infrastructure, Equivalence, Engagement, Assessment, On-Line Classes.

The Power of Demand Chain Management In Supply: A Focus on Perishable Items in Bangladesh During COVID-19

Mohammad Ali, AKM Kamrul Haque and Dan Bumblauskas


Much has been discussed about the resilience factors of supply chain management of trade organizations after the global pandemic.  We have observed how each and every step of supply chain management is very critical for the resilience of businesses globally, especially in healthcare and food recently. This article focuses on illustrating the benefit of retailer and customer interaction, and the downstream supply chain, for perishable items during the global pandemic. Respondent interviews were captured and analyzed from mobile retailers and customers involved in the buying and selling of perishable items. We find that mobile retail sales have grown when the retailer or 3PL is operating with the demand-side customers in mind during the global pandemic – a theory referred to as demand chain management. Customers purchase perishable items from mobile retailer entrances, while accounting for social distancing, while the retailers are able to sell their products to the customer through this channel during the crisis.

Keywords: Demand Chain Management (DCM), Perishable Items, Mobile Retailers, Supply Chain Management (SCM)

COVID-19: Increasing Production Cost and Its Effect on RMG Sector of Bangladesh

Esrat Jebin and Md. Faruque Hossain


The garments sector of Bangladesh is playing a major role in the growth of the rapidly growing economy of the country. According to World Bank in 1972, the total GDP of Bangladesh was US$29 billion which grew to $173.82 billion in 2014, where $31 billion came from the export sector and 82% of that was the contribution of the RMG sector. This industry is badly affected by the burden of the increased utility bills and unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. According to BGMEA, international buyers canceled or postponed at least 3.16 billion worth shipments which affected 1142 garments and 2.26 million workers, working in those garments. Therefore, this study is an attempt to find out the effect of increased gas and electricity bills as well as COVID-19 pandemic on RMG sector, consequences of COVID-19 pandemic, condition of workers and owners’, steps taken by Government and BGMEA, and the solution and precautionary to avoid such problem in the future. The research tools are the questionnaire for workers, and interview schedule for factory management and owners.  Samples were taken randomly from different levels of management and workers. The study divulges most of the owners and workers are not happy with the government’s decision of increasing utility bills especially the electricity bill amid the pandemic was deadly for them. The BGMEA was in dilemma from the very beginning of the pandemic which created more confusion among the workers due to lack of collective decision-making leadership. Terminating workers even after the government’s request puts the workers in a tight situation however some garments are not terminating workers and they have no intention to do this in the future. Concluding remarks, the government should give clear instructions to BGMEA about the safety of workers and stop terminating them. To save the industry they should work together, and the government should also reconsider the decision of increasing the gas and electricity bill.

Key words: Production Cost, RMG, BGMEA, COVID-19, Termination, Safety of Workers

Challenges of Remote Working During the Covid-19 Lockdown: A Case Study of Bangladeshi Working Mothers in Mid-Managerial Positions

Kishwar Mubin Chowdhury


Despite an increase in female labor force participation rate from 26% to 36% between 2003 and 2016, working women in Bangladesh continue to face gender specific challenges in a patriarchal society. Consequently, the immediate global shift to remote working as a preventive measure during the Covid-19 pandemic, presented some unique challenges for working women and especially mothers. Thus, through the analysis of in-depth interviews, this study uses the case study approach to identify and explore the specific challenges faced by urban working mothers in mid-managerial positions across various industries in Bangladesh. The findings suggest that apart from pre-existing notions about gender roles, several other contingency factors pertaining to the lockdown significantly hindered the ability of working mothers to work from home when compared to their male counterparts. Implications of the feasibility of remote working for mothers in the event of similar unprecedented crisis situations in the future are also discussed.

Keywords: Remote Work, Working Mothers, Social Distancing, Lockdown, Pandemic

The Pathways to Revive Organizational Stability in Covid-19 Pandemic: The Importance of Nurturing Human Capital

Dr. Nisar Ahmed, Sultana Parvin, Asif Parvez and Md. Mehzabul Hoque Nahid


The initiation of the appropriate training and development to revive organizational stability during the Covid-19 has been stressed much in literature. Currently, the world is facing such a situation in which a lot of policies have been put forward by the policymakers, but few brought success. This paper, which is based on the secondary sources of information, mainly highlighted the importance of suitable institutional training and development in hopes of nurturing human capital, which is claimed to be highly recommended from both the aspects: country and organizational amid the Covid-19 pandemic. After reviewing numerous studies published lately on the same theme, this paper mainly discusses the emerging issues facing business today, the initiatives taken by the protagonists to safeguard organizational stability both at the national and international levels. The discussion of the paper is focused on the initiatives so far put forward by several organizations to cope with the crisis caused by Covid-19. The study also argues the importance of delegating proper training and development in a form of capacity building for survival during and after the pandemic. The exact approaches to the training and development can be designed by following the footsteps of other developed countries, which have so far implemented several strategies to overcome the crisis.

Keywords: Covid 19, Bangladesh’s Economy, Training and Development, Human Capital, Global Crisis

Critical Analysis on the Impact of COVID-19: Research based on Secondary Evidence

Rumana Afrin and Dr. Sahin Akter Sarker


The effects of the pandemic COVID-19 will vary from country to country. Poverty and inequality will most likely increase on a global scale, achieving SDGs much more urgent (UNDP, 2020). This paper is aimed to explore the consequence of COVID-19 research. Through the analysis of the evidence, trends, and impact of infectious coronavirus disease have been tried to pinpoint. To do this, several published information has been assessed. The investigation signifies the effect (both decisive and adverse) of COVID-19 on a different sector of the economy across the globe. The analysis has thus investigated the feasible assimilation of sophisticated digital technologies (DTs) to aid business survival during extreme disruptions due to the said crisis. The review surmises with the global challenges addressing feasible measures concerning COVID-19. 

Keywords: Ambient Air Quality, COVID-19, Digital Technologies (DTs), GHG Emissions, Productivity Growth, SMEs, Waste Generation and Handling

A Research Study to Delve at Inspirational Leadership, Positive Change in Organizational Culture, and thereby Paving the way for ‘The New Era Education System’

Tamanna Nazneen Rahman


This study narrates, how leaders can change their organisation to battle through the worst of situation to gain victory in the pandemic situation caused by COVID 19 in Bangladesh. Hence, this study projects the leadership which has shaped AIUB as a true leading organisation in term of education in Bangladesh. Even though the lockdown created people to stay at home, the leaders in AIUB brainstormed to keep education and lives safe. And this is the first organisation in Bangladesh to initiate hybrid and blended learning in education system in Bangladesh and setting an example to be the true pioneer. These leaders of AIUB came to rescue lives, education, wellbeing of their employees and teachers and caused a revolutionary forwardness in tertiary education with their extraordinary vision, strategy and their true leadership behaviour which can be called ‘The New Era Education System’. This is an ideology mixed with strategy taken by these leaders to overcome any battle to reach the organisational goal and never stopping to spread the power of knowledge. This research has been taken up by the researcher to answer the quenching questions on- how to restore balance in education and keep organisation remain as a normal and fully functional state, by ‘leader’ and how can this be attained during a time of crisis in the context of Bangladeshi education and Bangladeshi Private Organisation: COVID19 Pandemic.

Keywords: Leadership, Hybrid Learning, Blended Learning, Tertiary Education Transformational Leader, Transitional Leader.

Challenges and Prospects of Online Learning during Covid-19: A Study on the Student Perspective

Yesmin Sultana and Sutapa Bhattacharjee


The shift to online learning is a really commendable step taken in Bangladesh in order to ensure that education remains running and accessible at a mass level. Most of the higher education providers in our country have taken numerous steps to provide online education. However, the current mixed method study – done through a combination of surveys and semi-structured interviews – suggests that there are numerous challenges in the online learning system right at this moment. Internet connectivity, technological difficulties, time-consuming adaptation to the new learning system, and assessment related aspects are the major reported challenges. While these challenges were reported, the respondents also mentioned positive aspects of online learning which includes accessibility to lecture content as per the time convenience of the students which provides them the opportunity to prepare themselves better. Also, the online system provides both the faculties and the students the opportunity to better enrich themselves with relevant content and subject matter from a wide variety of sources. In order to be able to integrate an online learning system or e-learning system in our regular provision of education in the post-Covid times as well, we need to address these challenges, keeping the students’ perspective in mind. Just like the renowned education-providers all over the world, education providers in our country can also slowly shift to a hybrid education model which facilitates both online and offline features of learning.

Keywords: Challenges, Covid-19, Education, Hybrid Model, Online, Opportunities

Sources of Stress and Coping Strategies of University Students during COVID-19 Pandemic

Bohi Shajahan, Samia Shabnaz, and Hafsa Maryam


This study seeks to explore the sources of stress and identify the coping strategies employed by university students during the Covid-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. The study uses an online self-administered structured questionnaire to collect data from 409 university students through snowball sampling. Descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s alpha, and cross-tabulation were used for the data analysis. The paper highlights the significant sources of stress and related coping strategies. It identifies that males are more stressed than females in isolation and financial uncertainty. Moreover, with respect to coping strategies, it is observed that females use some coping mechanisms (household chores, completing assignments, personal hygiene, relaxation exercises, learning new skills, destroying things, screaming and crying) more than their male counterparts. To help ensure sound mental health conditions, this study benefits psychologists, counselors and academicians to develop strategies for university students to cope with the stress during Covid-19 pandemic.

Keywords: Stress, Sources of Stress, Coping Strategy, Mental Health, Covid-19, Social Isolation

Impact of Covid-19 on Private Higher Educational Institutions (PHEIs) in Bangladesh: Challenges and Policy Responses

Rezbin Nahar, Foyasal Khan and Farheen Hassan


This paper investigates the likely impact of Covid-19 on private higher educational institutions (PHEIs) in Bangladesh. To conduct the study, a qualitative approach has been employed based on interviewing 8 educationists and 2 students on three key areas: general impact assessment; teaching and learning; and future impact of COVID-19 on PHEIs. The findings revealed that COVID-19 may create a barrier to the successive growth of tertiary education in terms of dropping enrolment in the coming academic years. The study also indicates that PHEIs may face trouble in the salary payment of their academic and non-academic staff. Even, many staff may lose their jobs. Thus, Covid-19 may psychologically affect the community of PHEIs. Based on the findings, this research recommends that the government should offer a financial package to protect PHEIs in order to effectively tackle the challenges of the COVID-19 outbreak. The findings of this study, conducted at the very early stages of coronavirus spread in Bangladesh, will be important for policymakers in further improving the capacity of PHEIs in Bangladesh in facing a crisis. The study also suggests that future research considering more samples and involving all stakeholders need to continue to effectively measure the real impact and severity of COVID-19 on PHEIs. 

Keywords: Private Higher Educational Institutions (PHEIs), Private University, Financial Crisis, Future Impact of Covid-19, UGC  

Uncertain time calls for agile management and adaptation of contingency plan: Lessons from HEIs in Bangladesh

Mohammad Rafiqul Islam Talukdar


The context of the future world is more likely to be globally driven, technologically allied, and economically adaptable, but demographically diverse and disruptive with contingency factors. Agile, strategic, and contingency plan-driven management, business innovation, and impact-leadership would be dominant factors in the social, economic, and organizational development of the new normal world. Organizational competence to tailor-made adjustment with an emerging complex environment and evolving business situation is likely to emerge as the new leading-edge competitive advantage. In the COVID-19 situation, amongst the higher education institutions (HEIs) in Bangladesh which had a robust contingency plan, technological soundness, and agile management, they adapted to the pandemic situation quickly and succeeded with a new business model and strategy. Such an evolving and disruptive world order in the increased globalized planet, organizational structure and model fitness, strong networking, collaboration and partnership, controlled external resource dependence, and survival with vigor are central to the success of the strategic management and impact leadership. The research has followed content analysis and focused synthesis methods. While it seems that the management of higher education institutions is supposed to be agile and resilient, and built on sound information communication technology and sturdy contingency plans, these are not widely evident in the case of Bangladesh. But the relevance of the open system organizational theories is evident, and these get strategic considerations in organizational management of HEIs in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Agile-management, Contingency-Plan, COVID-19, Open-System, Organizational-Theories.

An Analysis of Netflix’s Business Strategy and How the Company is Coping with the Challenges Posed by the Coronavirus Crisis

Mohammed Foysal Chowdhury


Netflix, the pioneer of streaming service, is noted for its game-changing strategies that has not only set the foundation of Over-the-Top (OTT) services but also introduced the major trends of the sector. Proactive and adaptive business strategies have helped the company to retain the leading position since its inception. Presently, the Subscription Video-on-Demand (SVOD) business is also facing unprecedented challenges due to outbreak of Covid-19 but interestingly Netflix has been cruising very comfortably so far against all the odds. This write-up takes a deeper look at the innovative strategies that have helped the company to make a stronghold in streaming sector and then examines the current strategies the company has adopted to adapt with the threats created by the Corona crisis with an aim to better comprehend company's current market standing as well as its future course of action.

Keywords: Netflix, Streaming Service, SVOD, OTT, Corona Crisis