Mukit Ahmed, Anika T. Chowdhury, Ashfaque A. Mohib and M.F. Hossain
Bangladesh has immense potential in agricultural sector given the abundance of mango production due to its healthy soil and weather. Therefore, the present study was conducted in value chain analysis of mango that consisting value adding activities in supply chain from input suppliers to end users. The necessity of value chain analysis is to figure out exactly how much value and cost added in each stage of supply chain. Data were collected regarding supply chain from secondary sources and also from a few conducted interviews which were generated from Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) and were analyzed statistically. Mango value chain mapping of Rajshahi and Khagrachari districts gave a clear understanding of how the cost were added in different stages of the supply chain. There are several types of supply chain of mango in hill district including supplied rank of importance showed to understand the costing and importance that could be different in various supply chain systems. Data indicated that the average cost of mango cultivation in a year was Tk. 133,889 per hectare of which 57% was variable cost and the 43% was fixed cost. The farmers received an average Tk. 175,244 per hectare as net return and Tk. 233,039 as gross margins from mango cultivation. The study also found that only the intermediaries in supply chain were not responsible for cost increasing but the farmers were responsible for the cost increase for not following the agricultural specialist’s suggestions. The necessity of value chain analysis of mango may help the business persons, government and non-governmental experts, policy makers and academicians who were directly or indirectly involved in agribusiness to understand how the cost can be minimized. Furthermore, this baseline study will help in designing and implementing appropriate strategies to promote mango value chains in Bangladesh. However, researchers are in need of extensive or in depth data, which are not available now but will be in future for better conclusive results.
Keywords: Agriculture, Value Chain, Mango, Bangladesh, Supply Chain.
Mohammad F. Alam and Md. Mohiuddin
This paper aims to analyze the dynamics of Bangladesh Tax System for the last two decades. This paper also intends to bring out the salient features of the existing tax structure to provide some relevant policy recommendations. Despite having impressive story of progress with its resilient and steady GDP growth of more than 6% for a number of years, Bangladesh has one of the lowest tax to GDP ratios in the world many years (it has stood 9.8 percent in the year 2016-17), which is one of the lowest among its neighboring countries and similar economies. Tax revenues has been contributing more than 80% of the total government revenue for the last two decades with a dominance of indirect tax contribution, although it has witnessed a decreasing trend in the last decade. Although direct tax contribution is around 37% of the tax revenue, it is collected from less than 1% of the population of the country with an indication of dissatisfactory compliance behavior of the taxpayers. Such performance places Bangladesh in 152nd position among 190 economies in the Paying Taxes 2018 study, as well as 148th position among 157 economies as per the Commitment to Reducing Inequality (CRI) Index 2018. Two decades of comparative study reveals that necessary reform measures should be taken to address the non-compliance problem with an expectation to improve the tax performance through an optimal and balanced tax system, that may reduce the degree of inequality in society.
Keywords: Tax, Tax-GDP Ratio, Direct Tax, Indirect Tax.
Every day the business world is changing. Technological, environmental and social changes influence the business strategies dramatically. For this competitive world, manufacturers must concern regarding the changes of technological, environmental and social. So, the business organizations give their concentration in sustainable issues. Bangladeshi manufacturers are not away from these issues. The present study is an attempt to examine the overall understanding of the sustainable marketing practices in RMG sector in Bangladesh (BD). Readymade garments are the largest export earning sector in BD. The purpose of this study is to identify the present scenarios of sustainable marketing practices in BD and the importance of transformation in this regard. The findings of the study are based on both primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected from 20 garments industries from
both Dhaka and Gazipur districts. The samples were collected according to the convenience of the researcher. The data were analyzed using some qualitative tools of statistical data analysis. Finally, the study suggests some guidelines which will be beneficial to Bangladeshi manufacturers for adopting sustainable marketing practices and transformation strategies.
Keywords: Promotion, Sustainable Marketing, Ready Made Garments, Transformation.
Mohammad M. Rahman and Muhammad A. Rahman
In recent years, Cloud Computing (CC) is as one of the most relevant and significant research trends in Information technology (IT). This paper aims to identify the factors, benefits, and challenges while adopting CC in Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) in Bangladesh. Many HEIs are shifting from traditional IT services to Clouds because it makes the academic process more efficient and effective. Cloud Computing offers huge benefits to HEIs such as boosts collaborative research activities, storage and backs up data, improves filling and 24/7 accessible facilities from remote locations, provides latest software and applications for financial and HR management, online learning management system, improves accountability and various services with minimum start-up cost. Besides the utmost benefits it offers for the HEIs, increasing financial pressure forces them to consider adopting CC because it reduces cost and pay-per-use pricing model. Globally researchers are showing interest in the adoption of CC in HEIs sector, but factors are still unexplored for Bangladeshi HEIs context. As a result, to fill this gap is required to identify influential factors, benefits and what challenges Bangladeshi HEIs face while adopting CC. Therefore, TAM and TOE theory is used to develop a conceptual model to identify influential factors for Bangladeshi HEIs.
Keywords: Cloud Computing, Information Technology, Higher Education Institutions, Technology Acceptance Model.
Tahsina Khan and Shamsun Nahar Khanam
This qualitative study aims to explore the emergent renewable energy interventions across the globe from the perspective of recent solar energy applications to improve electrification scenario. Due to an ever-increasing demand for clean energy, rapid growth in the utilization of naturally available solar energy has been evident. Realizing the environmental implications and socio-economic development opportunities brought in by the growing adoption of renewables to meet the escalating electricity demand around the world, this study reviews and analyze the prevailing literature on solar electrification projects in selected developed and developing nations. To support this proposition, this article essentially consolidates the scholarly works and pertinent insights highlighting the progress and scope of solar energy programs in American, African, Asian and European nations to improve the electrification status and upgrade energy security. With this backdrop, this paper further highlights the current global trend on solar technology adoption to address energy efficiency and access to electricity for all, particularly to the underserved and underprivileged population.
Keywords: Renewable Energy, Solar Energy, Solar Electrification, Renewable Energy Investments.
Tahsina Khan, Farheen Hassan and Md. M. Hasan
This empirical study sought to ascertain the perception of rural communities in Bangladesh about the development opportunities derived from the emergent adoption of solar home system (SHS). Using the semi-structured questionnaire, this study analyzed information gathered from one hundred and seventy one respondents drawn purposively from two villages locally known as Charking and Boalia, situated in the Noakhali and Shirajganj districts respectively. The survey was conducted between October, 2017 and January 2018 including field observations in the selected sites and in-depth interviews to facilitate the data collection process. Questionnaire items, which were primarily adopted from prior studies, measure the responses of the survey participants in a seven point Likert-scale ranging from ‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’. Since the study focuses more on exploring users’ perception regarding SHS adoption, basic descriptive statistics of percentage, frequencies, and cross tab were incorporated in the analysis. Results of the study reveal that, household users in the off-grid rural locations benefit from the access to solar electricity through improvement in their living conditions and enhanced social status. In addition to this, the rural families avail convenient in-house lighting, security at night and better educational opportunities for the children. With this backdrop, findings of the study add value to the current literature on impact assessment of solar electrification and provide strategic insights for policymakers to promote the usage of renewable energy technology among the rural populations of the country.
Keywords: Rural Electrification, Solar Home System, Rural Households, Social Development.
Arnab Zahid, Md. M. Hasan and Md. Mehzabul Hoque. Nahid
Being an intermediary, insurers are one of the key players of healthcare industry and the link has formed in between insurance and healthcare through health insurance. The convergence of information and communication technology along with cyber physical environment has already started to establish. As opposed to, the insurance industry has also apprehended and started transforming. The purpose of this review is concisely presenting the contemporary technological scenario of health insurance. As the implication of cyber physical environment seems to have started in the insurance industry, the methodology has been formulated under three strategies (e.g. evidence searching, filtering and describing) to sort out the most validated, authentic and updated sources regarding the health insurance technology. Even though, synthesizing with evolving technologies like big data, cloud computing, IoT and other digital trends depicted in this study has seen to be used in insurance industry; the substantial usage of these technology has been observed very few for insurance management systems. It is expected that the study will aid to illustrate a comprehensive view of today’s technological scenario of health insurance and effort towards further related researches.
Keywords: Internet, Cloud Computing, Artificial Intelligence, Insurance, Health.
Nazmun Nahar, Sadia Rahman and Mossa. A. Khatun
It is a major challenge for business students of Bangladesh in choosing the specialization which will lead them to their ultimate career path. The purpose of the study is to identify important factors crucial in selecting a specialization. Due to increasing competition among private and public universities and also among different majors of business education, it has become vital to determine student perceptions and take necessary actions. It helps the educators to enhance the current majors to gain new business students. A survey on 214 business undergraduate students of American International University- Bangladesh was conducted through convenience sampling from different specializations. The results from statistical analysis using SPSS show criteria such as personal issues, job characteristics, course offerings, features of specialization, prospective salary are important and positively correlated in the process of major selection. The factors, issues and job characteristics are the most important ones while the factor advice is the least important to students in this regard. Moreover, the study showed 80% participants chose their major after their admission in the university during 3rd to 5th semester and their decisions were affected mainly by their own judgment (49.5%) and to some extent through the advices from parents (15.9%). This refers that the BBA program of a private university in Bangladesh has enough opportunities to affect students’ decisions by counseling, improving career opportunities and enriching courses and majors.
Keywords: Career Choice in Business, Private Universities in Bangladesh, Decision Making.
Anisa Sultana and Sarfaraj Islam
This study examined the extent to which Teachers among other significant factors contribute in undergraduate student’s career decisions upon completion of their studies in Bangladesh. A quantitative methodology was applied and 200 Undergraduate Students (120 males, 80 females; age range 18 to 30 years) participated in the survey. The survey questionnaire was structured and derived from the theoretical framework and hypothesis to assess the demographic characteristics, role of teachers and other career decision factors. Data are analyzed using Minitab version 16 to find out the relationship between students career decision (dependent variable) and other factors that influence student’s career decisions (independent variables). The study found that undergraduate students career choice were highly determined by their teachers who guided them to make a right career plan through career conversations, counseling and helping students to gain comprehensive understanding of curriculum to achieve career specific requirements. Other significant influencers such as parents, friends and students themselves were also taken into account however low positive correlation was found. Overall the study found that majority of the undergraduate students are highly career conscious and they generally seek employment upon their graduation.
Keywords: Career Decision, Teachers role, Counseling, Personal and Societal Factors, Under-Graduate Students, Bangladesh.
Saad Hasan, Shafikul Islam, Ashfaque A. Mohib and Mohammad R. Hoque
Export oriented clothing sector popularly referred to as the Ready-Made Garments (RMG) industry is one of the heavily utilized sourcing hubs for the international clothing retailers and brands. Most of the international retail chains have a local sourcing office tasked with procurement, quality management and logistics issues signifying the importance of Bangladesh as a sourcing hub for the international clothing industry. The nature of the relationship between the international buyers and the local RMG manufacturers is transactional and ad-hoc. The international buyers manage each order with traditional operations processes such as merchandizing, procurement, quality management, shipment and transportation etc. This research using an illustrative case based on a case study argues that performance and overall competitive advantage of all the stakeholders can be improved if individual orders are taken up as project and existing project management knowledge, skills and tools are used. The benefits can be in terms of overall cost minimization, reduction in lead-time, improved efficiency and productivity among others.
Keywords: Project Management, Ready Made Garments, Supply chain Management, International Clothing Industry, Project Planning, Action Research.
Sumona A. Mim and Samia Shabnaz
The garments sector of Bangladesh contributes significantly to the GDP by creating about 4.2 million employment opportunities. This industry is now facing new challenges due to the fast globalization and technological development. For gaining a major source of competitive advantage in a global market organization need to improve capabilities, knowledge and skill of the talented workforce. Thus, to cope with their challenges, effective training program are needed by all manufacturing organization. Training effectiveness depends on few things and these are trainer’s knowledge and capabilities, deliverable methods of trainers, training contents and objectives. Several studies highlighted the importance of training on the employee performance through the learning process. This study focused on the perception of employees on effectiveness of the training program and identified the relation of variables with training effectiveness perception. Self-developed questionnaire using Likert Scale was used to collect data from the sample size of 100 to do the study. The results were generated using SPSS Ver. 20 where Crosstab, frequency table was used. It is evident in this research that there is significant relationship exists with gender, education level and training frequency with the employee’s perception regarding the effectiveness of training program. The study will help the garments industry to design training program by focusing on factors which influences the perception of the employees regarding training effectiveness.
Keywords: Employee Perception, Training, Garments Industry, Bangladesh.