AIUB Journal of Business and Economics

Volume: 16, Issue: 1

Publication Date: 31th October, 2019

ISSN 1683-8742 (Print)                                                 ISSN (online): 2706-7076

Value Chain Analysis of Mango in Bangladesh

Mukit Ahmed, Anika T. Chowdhury, Ashfaque A. Mohib and M.F. Hossain


Bangladesh has immense potential in agricultural sector given the abundance of mango production due to its healthy soil and weather. Therefore, the present study was conducted in value chain analysis of mango that consisting value adding activities in supply chain from input suppliers to end users. The necessity of value chain analysis is to figure out exactly how much value and cost added in each stage of supply chain. Data were collected regarding supply chain from secondary sources and also from a  few conducted interviews which were generated from Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) and were analyzed statistically. Mango value chain mapping of Rajshahi and Khagrachari districts gave a clear understanding of how the cost were added in different stages of the supply chain. There are several types of supply chain of mango in hill district including supplied rank of importance showed to understand the costing and importance that could be different in various supply chain systems. Data indicated that the average cost of mango cultivation in a year was Tk. 133,889 per hectare of which 57% was variable cost and the 43% was fixed cost. The farmers received an average Tk. 175,244 per hectare as net return and Tk. 233,039 as gross margins from mango cultivation. The study also found that only the intermediaries in supply chain were not responsible for cost increasing but the farmers were responsible for the cost increase for not following the agricultural specialist’s suggestions. The necessity of value chain analysis of mango may help the business persons, government and non-governmental experts, policy makers and academicians who were directly or indirectly involved in agribusiness to understand how the cost can be minimized. Furthermore, this baseline study will help in designing and implementing appropriate strategies to promote mango value chains in Bangladesh. However, researchers are in need of extensive or in depth data, which are not available now but will be in future for better conclusive results.

Keywords: Agriculture, Value Chain, Mango, Bangladesh, Supply Chain.

Two Decades of Tax Revenue Dynamics: Bangladesh Panorama

Mohammad F. Alam and Md. Mohiuddin


This paper aims to analyze the dynamics of Bangladesh Tax System for the last two decades. This paper also intends to bring out the salient features of the existing tax structure to provide some relevant policy recommendations. Despite having impressive story of progress with its resilient and steady GDP growth of more than 6% for a number of years, Bangladesh has one of the  lowest tax to GDP ratios in the world many years (it has stood 9.8 percent in the year 2016-17), which is one of the lowest among its neighboring countries and similar economies. Tax revenues has been contributing more than 80% of the total government revenue for the last two decades with a dominance of indirect tax contribution, although it has witnessed a decreasing trend in the last decade. Although direct tax contribution is around 37% of the tax revenue, it is collected from less than 1% of the population of the country with an indication of dissatisfactory compliance behavior of the taxpayers. Such performance places Bangladesh in 152nd position among 190 economies in the Paying Taxes 2018 study, as well as 148th position among 157 economies as per the Commitment to Reducing Inequality (CRI) Index 2018. Two decades of comparative study reveals that necessary reform measures should be taken to address the non-compliance problem with an expectation to improve the tax performance through an optimal and balanced tax system, that may reduce the degree of inequality in society.

Keywords: Tax, Tax-GDP Ratio, Direct Tax, Indirect Tax.

Promoting Sustainable Marketing in the RMG Sector:  A Step for Transformation

Salma Honey


Every day the business world is changing. Technological, environmental and social changes influence the business strategies dramatically. For this competitive world, manufacturers must concern regarding the changes of technological, environmental and social. So, the business organizations give their concentration in sustainable issues. Bangladeshi manufacturers are not away from these issues. The present study is an attempt to examine the overall understanding of the sustainable marketing practices in RMG sector in Bangladesh (BD). Readymade garments are the largest export earning sector in BD. The purpose of this study is to identify the present scenarios of sustainable marketing practices in BD and the importance of transformation in this regard. The findings of the study are based on both primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected from 20 garments industries from both Dhaka and Gazipur districts.  The samples were collected according to the convenience of the researcher. The data were analyzed using some qualitative tools of statistical data analysis. Finally, the study suggests some guidelines which will be beneficial to Bangladeshi manufacturers for adopting sustainable marketing practices and transformation strategies.

Keywords: Promotion, Sustainable Marketing, Ready Made Garments, Transformation.

Cloud Computing in Bangladeshi Higher Educational Institutions: Influential Factors and Adoption Model

Mohammad M. Rahman and Muhammad A. Rahman


In recent years, Cloud Computing (CC) is as one of the most relevant and significant research trends in Information technology (IT). This paper aims to identify the factors, benefits, and challenges while adopting CC in Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) in Bangladesh. Many HEIs are shifting from traditional IT services to Clouds because it makes the academic process more efficient and effective. Cloud Computing offers huge benefits to HEIs such as boosts collaborative research activities, storage and backs up data, improves filling and 24/7 accessible facilities from remote locations, provides latest software and applications for financial and HR management, online learning management system, improves accountability and various services with minimum start-up cost. Besides the utmost benefits it offers for the HEIs, increasing financial pressure forces them to consider adopting CC because it reduces cost and pay-per-use pricing model. Globally researchers are showing interest in the adoption of CC in HEIs sector, but factors are still unexplored for Bangladeshi HEIs context. As a result, to fill this gap is required to identify influential factors, benefits and what challenges Bangladeshi HEIs face while adopting CC. Therefore, TAM and TOE theory is used to develop a conceptual model to identify influential factors for Bangladeshi HEIs.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Information Technology, Higher Education Institutions, Technology Acceptance Model.

Exploring the Renewable Energy Interventions Across the Globe: The Prospect & Progress of Solar Energy Ventures

Tahsina Khan and Shamsun Nahar Khanam


This qualitative study aims to explore the emergent renewable energy interventions across the globe from the perspective of recent solar energy applications to improve electrification scenario. Due to an ever-increasing demand for clean energy, rapid growth in the utilization of naturally available solar energy has been evident. Realizing the environmental implications and socio-economic development opportunities brought in by the growing adoption of renewables to meet the escalating electricity demand around the world, this study reviews and analyze the prevailing literature on solar electrification projects in selected developed and developing nations. To support this proposition, this article essentially consolidates the scholarly works and pertinent insights highlighting the progress and scope of solar energy programs in American, African, Asian and European nations to improve the electrification status and upgrade energy security. With this backdrop, this paper further highlights the current global trend on solar technology adoption to address energy efficiency and access to electricity for all, particularly to the underserved and underprivileged population.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Solar Energy, Solar Electrification, Renewable Energy Investments.

Analyzing Users’ Perceptions on Solar Electrification: A Study on Villagers in off-grid Regions

Tahsina Khan, Farheen Hassan and Md. M. Hasan


This empirical study sought to ascertain the perception of rural communities in Bangladesh about the development opportunities derived from the emergent adoption of solar home system (SHS). Using the semi-structured questionnaire, this study analyzed information gathered from one hundred and seventy one respondents drawn purposively from two villages locally known as Charking and Boalia, situated in the Noakhali  and  Shirajganj districts respectively. The survey was conducted between October, 2017 and January 2018 including field observations in the selected sites and in-depth interviews to facilitate the data collection process. Questionnaire items, which were primarily adopted from prior studies, measure the responses of the survey participants in a seven point Likert-scale ranging from ‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’. Since the study focuses more on exploring users’ perception regarding SHS adoption, basic descriptive statistics of percentage, frequencies, and cross tab were incorporated in the analysis. Results of the study reveal that, household users in the off-grid rural locations benefit from the access to solar electricity through improvement in their living conditions and enhanced social status. In addition to this, the rural families avail convenient in-house lighting, security at night and better educational opportunities for the children. With this backdrop, findings of the study add value to the current literature on impact assessment of solar electrification and provide strategic insights for policymakers to promote the usage of renewable energy technology among the rural populations of the country.

Keywords: Rural Electrification, Solar Home System, Rural Households, Social Development.

E-Health Insurance Management System - An Exploratory Research

Arnab Zahid, Md. M. Hasan and Md. Mehzabul Hoque. Nahid


Being an intermediary, insurers are one of the key players of healthcare industry and the link has formed in between insurance and healthcare through health insurance. The convergence of information and communication technology along with cyber physical environment has already started to establish.  As opposed to, the insurance industry has also apprehended and started transforming. The purpose of this review is concisely presenting the contemporary technological scenario of health insurance. As the implication of cyber physical environment seems to have started in the insurance industry, the methodology has been formulated under three strategies (e.g. evidence searching, filtering and describing) to sort out the most validated, authentic and updated sources regarding the health insurance technology. Even though, synthesizing with evolving technologies like big data, cloud computing, IoT and other digital trends depicted in this study has seen to be used in insurance industry; the substantial usage of these technology has been observed very few for insurance management systems. It is expected that the study will aid to illustrate a comprehensive view of today’s technological scenario of health insurance and effort towards further related researches.

Keywords:  Internet, Cloud Computing, Artificial Intelligence, Insurance, Health.

Business Students’ Choice of Specialization: A Quantitative Case on a Private University of Bangladesh

Nazmun Nahar, Sadia Rahman and Mossa. A. Khatun


It is a major challenge for business students of Bangladesh in choosing the specialization which will lead them to their ultimate career path. The purpose of the study is to identify important factors crucial in selecting a specialization. Due to increasing competition among private and public universities and also among different majors of business education, it has become vital to determine student perceptions and take necessary actions. It helps the educators to enhance the current majors to gain new business students. A survey on 214 business undergraduate students of American International University- Bangladesh was conducted through convenience sampling from different specializations. The results from statistical analysis using SPSS show criteria such as personal issues, job characteristics, course offerings, features of specialization, prospective salary are important and positively correlated in the process of major selection. The factors, issues and job characteristics are the most important ones while the factor advice is the least important to students in this regard. Moreover, the study showed 80% participants chose their major after their admission in the university during 3rd to 5th semester and their decisions were affected mainly by their own judgment (49.5%) and to some extent through the advices from parents (15.9%). This refers that the BBA program of a private university in Bangladesh has enough opportunities to affect students’ decisions by counseling, improving career opportunities and enriching courses and majors.

Keywords: Career Choice in Business, Private Universities in Bangladesh, Decision Making.

Who influenced me more? -A comparative study of the factors that affect career decision of undergraduate students in Bangladesh

Anisa Sultana and Sarfaraj Islam


This study examined the extent to which Teachers among other significant factors contribute in undergraduate student’s career decisions upon completion of their studies in Bangladesh. A quantitative methodology was applied and 200 Undergraduate Students (120 males, 80 females; age range 18 to 30 years) participated in the survey. The survey questionnaire was structured and derived from the theoretical framework and hypothesis to assess the demographic characteristics, role of teachers and other career decision factors. Data are analyzed using Minitab version 16 to find out the relationship between students career decision (dependent variable) and other factors that influence student’s career decisions (independent variables). The study found that undergraduate students career choice were highly determined by their teachers who guided them to make a right career plan  through career conversations, counseling and helping students to gain comprehensive understanding of curriculum to achieve career specific requirements. Other significant influencers such as parents, friends and students themselves were also taken into account however low positive correlation was found. Overall the study found that majority of the undergraduate students are highly career conscious and they generally seek employment upon their graduation.

Keywords: Career Decision, Teachers role, Counseling, Personal and Societal Factors, Under-Graduate Students, Bangladesh.

Use of Project Management in the Ready Made Garments Sector

Saad Hasan, Shafikul Islam, Ashfaque A. Mohib and Mohammad R. Hoque


Export oriented clothing sector popularly referred to as the Ready-Made Garments (RMG) industry is one of the heavily utilized sourcing hubs for the international clothing retailers and brands. Most of the international retail chains have a local sourcing office tasked with procurement, quality management and logistics issues signifying the importance of Bangladesh as a sourcing hub for the international clothing industry. The nature of the relationship between the international buyers and the local RMG manufacturers is transactional and ad-hoc. The international buyers manage each order with traditional operations processes such as merchandizing, procurement, quality management, shipment and transportation etc. This research using an illustrative case based on a case study argues that performance and overall competitive advantage of all the stakeholders can be improved if individual orders are taken up as project and existing project management knowledge, skills and tools are used. The benefits can be in terms of overall cost minimization, reduction in lead-time, improved efficiency and productivity among others.

Keywords: Project Management, Ready Made Garments, Supply chain Management, International Clothing Industry, Project Planning, Action Research.

Employees Perception on Training Effectiveness – A Study on Garments Industry of Bangladesh

Sumona A. Mim and Samia Shabnaz


The garments sector of Bangladesh contributes significantly to the GDP by creating about 4.2 million employment opportunities. This industry is now facing new challenges due to the fast globalization and technological development. For gaining a major source of competitive advantage in a global market organization need to improve capabilities, knowledge and skill of the talented workforce. Thus, to cope with their challenges, effective training program are needed by all manufacturing organization. Training effectiveness depends on few things and these are trainer’s knowledge and capabilities, deliverable methods of trainers, training contents and objectives. Several studies highlighted the importance of training on the employee performance through the learning process. This study focused on the perception of employees on effectiveness of the training program and identified the relation of variables with training effectiveness perception. Self-developed questionnaire using Likert Scale was used to collect data from the sample size of 100 to do the study. The results were generated using SPSS Ver. 20 where Crosstab, frequency table was used. It is evident in this research that there is significant relationship exists with gender, education level and training frequency with the employee’s perception regarding the effectiveness of training program. The study will help the garments industry to design training program by focusing on factors which influences the perception of the employees regarding training effectiveness.        

Keywords: Employee Perception, Training, Garments Industry, Bangladesh.

Impact of Stress on Employees Performances: A Case Study on Pubali Bank Limited

Abdul K. Nazmul, Farheen Hassan and Md. M. Hossain   


This paper explores the factors responsible for stressful work environment in Pubali bank, Bangladesh as a case study and suggests measures to overcome the negative impacts of stress for employees in the organization. This study uses a multilinear regression analysis based on questionnaire surveys among 40 randomly selected employees of Pubali bank. Data was collected from the employees working in the corporate branch and head office located in Motijheel, Dhaka. The findings suggest ineffective management system affects increased absenteeism, increased employee turnover, reduced productivity, and reduction in organizational overall efficiency. Lack of health and safety arrangements elucidate employees to become physically and mentally imbalanced. Lack of health and safety arrangements also elucidates organizational overall efficiency to be reduced. In addition, dissatisfying reward system introduces increased employee complaints and job insecurity, bringing increased organizational conflicts.

Keywords: Stress Management, Human Resource, Bank, Employee Performance, Performance Management.

Potentials of Establishing Eco-tourism in Cox’s Bazar: Understanding Tourist Perspectives and Preferences for a Right Marketing Mix

Zairen S. Lupa and M.F. Hossain


Cox’s Bazar is the leading tourism destination of Bangladesh but unplanned and improper development is leaving a trail of environmental injuries to the sector’s sustainability. Eco-tourism is perceived to be the ideal solution to the problem but thus far has not been suitably implemented. This study was carried out to understand tourist perception of environmental conservation and eco-tourism, with specific allusion to Cox’s Bazar in order to determine market potential and marketing avenues for a sustainable eco-tourism program. An online survey coupled with focused group discussion was conducted to gather data and deeper assessment of the mindset of Cox’s Bazar tourists. The information was analyzed based on McCarthy’s 4Ps classification of marketing mix using percentage analysis and measures of central tendencies and variability. The findings is that tourists are generally ready to enjoy eco-tourism in Cox’s Bazar and a mix of nature adventure activities, which, if moderately priced and ideally located in Enani/Teknaf, can be promoted through online media to attract and retain steady tourist traffic in the region to regenerate funds into its ecological conservation projects. Such programs should be pursued through a public-private partnership venture to realize the strongest resources of both sectors. The research can contribute to the works of tourism policy makers and project developers to ensure a holistically lucrative and manageable eco-tourism program in Cox’s Bazar. However, given that the study was conducted on a limited sample frame and size, further data should be collected to verify the findings and eliminate statistical errors before use.

Keywords: Cox’s Bazar, eco-tourism, 4Ps of marketing, tourist perception

National Delegation to the Conference of the Parties (COPs) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

Mohammad Ali          


Although criticized on management and outcome, attendance in environmental mega conferences has been continuously increasing. Recent Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has hosted thousands of delegates. Climate vulnerable countries show similar trend in size of national delegation. Size of delegation team is positively correlated with the total population while environmental performance and political stability of the country do not influence the size of delegation team. In formation of state representatives, countries differ in their preferences to academic community, public and private sector, business community etc. Bangladesh, one of the highly climate vulnerable countries, shows some exceptions – participants from non-government organizations (NGOs) and private sectors are minimal, while political personality, irrespective of their level of expertise in relevant field, are substantial. It is proposed that UNFCCC should come up with some policy guidelines to ensure optimum assembly of academics, researcher, practitioners, government officials and private sector for countries to select delegation team for COPs.

Keywords: Conference of the Parties, United Nations, Climate Change, State and Non-state Representatives, Bangladesh.

The Use of Promotional Tools in Enhancing Consumers' Awareness towards the purchase of Agro-based Products 

Hamidul Islam, Sahin A. Sarker and Stanley S. Rodrick


The necessity of modern retailing practices regarding marketing and sales of agro-based products in Bangladesh has resulted in enormous growth over the last few years. Therefore, this study explored the significance of promotional tools and benefits in growing young consumers' awareness of agro-based products marketed by modern retail outlets in Dhaka city. It examined how these outlets have applied various tools of promotions to create awareness and transform consumers' choice into purchase intention. Non-probability sampling especially convenience sampling technique was applied and around 260 responses were utilized to gather and analyze the reliable data. The data was collected using “survey” and secondary information was utilized to support the data. Responses were analyzed statistically with SPSS 20.0 using both descriptive and factor analysis tools. The findings showed that the significance of promotional tools and offers applied by these physical outlets are used to create awareness among the youths in Dhaka city is somewhat satisfactory. Consumers are having their highest priority towards the “Mobile and Telemarketing” tool whereas “Online and Social Media” tool received priority after the mentioned one. Therefore, the researchers opined that information about the effectiveness of these tools could enable modern retail outlets in Dhaka city to foster their competitiveness, ensure their long-term survival and boost their sales.

Keywords: Agro-based Products, Consumers’ Awareness, Modern Retail Outlets, Promotional Tools, Promotional Benefits.

The Effectiveness of e-learning in Staff Training to Gain Hospitality Organizational Excellence

Mahmudul Hasan


This paper discovers the state of e-learning within hospitality industry. It introduces relevant topics such as definition, employee attitude and other factors of hospitality e-learning. It critically reviews the growth of e-learning in hospitality companies. Moreover, the author identifies the development of e-learning in hospitality industry by addressing recent cases. A literature review is conducted, and the research involves survey questionnaire and semi-structured interview to collect data from users of Hilton e-learning resources and a statistical analysis of that data. Findings of the study indicate positive perceptions of e-learning among hospitality companies. However, the main finding is the identification of several concerns that can potentially prevent the users to utilize the complete advantage of e-learning. The findings should assist policy makers, instructors and e-learning implementers in designing course materials or improving technical matters that would be more effective for e-learning at hospitality environment.

Keywords: E-learning, Hospitality Industry, Staff Training, Hotel Management.

Consumer Perception Towards Islamic Banking Services

Shafkat R. Chowdhury, Saad Hasan and Mohammad R. Hoque


Islamic banking services in the UK are showing impressive gains. This research investigates behavioural belief and attitude of UK Muslims which generates constructive intention to use Islamic banking services and financial products. Nonetheless, the same notion is not applicable for all Muslims in general. Furthermore, there is potential for Non-Muslims to tread into Islamic banking services, given that banks are able to articulate strategies in manners which are aimed at a more widespread populace regardless of faith or religion. The research has followed a qualitative research methodology and examined various theories and models based on prevailing literature.


Keywords: Islamic Banking, Consumer Perception, Shariah Law, Qualitative Research, Consumer Behaviour, Social Identity Theory, Decision Process

Electronic Human Resource Management (E-HRM) for Sustainability of Textile Industry: Evidence from Bangladesh

Mohammad F. Islam, Md. N. Nabi and Tania Akter


With the development of technology, the world has become faster with new innovations to make the working life easier, smarter and competent (Hossain & Islam, 2015). In the present knowledge economy, the performance of HRM undoubtedly related to organizational success (Masum et al., 2015).

But, HRM departments of most of the countries are no longer doing file or paperwork, rather with the invention and advancement of IT, efficient, faster and cost saving. Moreover, the world is moving towards 4IR, where technologies, AI, VR will the big player. In this regard, E-HRM is to create a sustainable and competitive advantage through employee engagement. Textile is one of the major successful manufacturing sectors with greater contribution to the national economy of Bangladesh. So, the purpose of study is to ascertain the relationship between five E-HRM practices (independent variables) and organizational sustainability as steady increase in profit and market growth (Dependent variables). Cronbach alpha has been used to check the reliability and validity of variables. Pearson Correlation and OLS Regression analysis have been used to show the relationship with the help of SPSS. After analyzing the data, it was revealed that all the E-HRM functions have positive correlation with organizational sustainability. Notably, E-recruitment & selection (ERS) is the most significant function (0.006) and HRIS & e-communication (HRISC) relatively low significant (0.045) function among all E-HRM functions. The study will hopefully be proven useful for decision makers of various firms who wish to reduce costs and increase profit by adopting environment friendliness to gain sustainable development.

Keywords: E-HRM, Textile industry, Sustainable development, Bangladesh