1. Sustainability Report and Integrated Report: A Comprehensive Comparison
Md Tapan Mahmud
To align with the environmental and societal changes, firms are now offering both financial and non-financial information in their reports. For providing non-financial information (ESG: environmental, social, governance) Sustainability Report (SR) and Integrated Report (IR) are the ‘go to’ channels for the firms; in the evolutionary process of corporate reporting these are the latest additions. Interestingly, even if both these reports offer non-financial information, they hold few contrasts between each other. On the said note, this paper tries to portray a comprehensive comparison between SR and IR. Focus of SR is to provide non-financial information for a wide range of stakeholders, it is mostly based on standards, it has a subjective approach and its industry customization is moderate. Conversely, IR provides non-financial information mostly for the providers of financial capital, it is principle based, has an objective approach and holds high level of industry customization. However, both platforms suffer from lack of assurance, comparability and legal support. Future studies can be initiated to solve these issues. Additionally, IR and SR will face imminent challenges sourcing from climate change, human rights issues, wealth inequality and data & technology advancement. Report preparers and academics may draw conceptual framework regarding the configuration of IR and SR, from this study.
Keywords: Corporate Reporting, Sustainability Disclosures, Sustainability Report (SR), Integrated Report (IR)., pp.01-17
2. Resource Mobilization through Tax Revenue: A Comparative Study of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka
Mohammad Faridul Alam , Md. Mohiuddin
The main objective of this study is to analyze and compare the current tax structure in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka in terms of different tax mix. The study considered secondary data from 2005-2006 to 2014-2015. Although it has been observed that both the countries are suffering from poor Tax–GDP ratio, Sri Lanka is in a better position (12.4) comparing to Bangladesh (9.9). Indirect tax contributes the maximum share of tax revenues in Sri Lanka (82.6%) followed by Bangladesh (62.38%). In Sri Lanka, Customs duty plays the leading role, whereas in Bangladesh VAT is in dominance. Considering the direct tax contribution, Bangladesh plays better than Sri Lanka. The study reflects the issue that tax evasion and avoidance, poor tax administration is the main problem of poor tax performance in both the countries. But, overcoming such obstacles through appropriate reform measures, both the countries have potential to improve resource mobilization through tax.
Keywords: Tax Structure, Tax revenue. Direct tax, Indirect tax, Tax GDP ratio, pp.19-39
3. Development of a Consumer Confidence Index for the Bangladesh Economy and Identification of Financial Risk Factors Affecting Consumer Confidence
Mohammad Saif Noman Khan
This paper is oriented to analyze the consumer confidence level and development of a consumer confidence index. In light of data analyses it is evident that consumer confidence is low in Bangladesh measured according to both Conference Board Method and Tipp Indicator.Two methods have been used for analyzing consumer confidence, the Conference Board Method and TIPP Indicator Method. The primary findings of the research are that Bangladeshi residents are cautiously pessimistic about the current economy and slightly optimistic about the next six months, though, both indicators are in the lower region. They have also found to be optimistic about income growth and cautious in their assessment of future job opportunities.The principal risk factors that were identified by consumers are inadequacy and weakness in rules and regulations, lack of redress in case of financial losses, fraudulent activities, political risks, corruptions etc.
Key Words: Consumer, Index, TIPP, Confidence, Risk, Policy, Political, Governance, CCI, Economy, pp.41-60
4. The Impact of Service Quality Dimensions on Visitors’ Satisfaction towards the Theme Parks of Bangladesh: An Empirical Study on Fantasy Kingdom Based on SERVQUAL Model
Tauhid Ahmed Bappy, Samiya Bint Halim
The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of service quality dimensions on visitors’ satisfaction towards theme parks of Bangladesh. This was a descriptive research and the researchers took visitors from Fantasy Kingdom theme park as sample. In this study, the researchers used stratified sampling technique and the sample size used for final data analysis turned out to be 150 park visitors. The researchers used factor analysis and multiple regression analysis to analyse the data. Firstly, through factor analysis, multiple items measuring service quality were reduced into five factors such as reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy, and responsiveness. Then, regression analysis was conducted to investigate the relative importance of the factors responsible for influencing visitors’ satisfaction. However, the researchers found that all the identified factors significantly and positively contributed to visitors’ satisfaction and tangible elements of theme park turned out to be the most crucial factor in this regard. The researchers believe that the findings and recommendations presented in this study may be followed by the managers of theme parks in Bangladesh to improve their service quality to achieve visitors’ satisfaction.
Keywords: Service quality, Visitors’ Satisfaction, Theme park, Factor Analysis, Regression, pp.61-81
5. Internationalization and International Business Strategies: A Review of Literature
Partha Prasad Chowdhury
Since the 1980s globalization has been one of the most important phenomenon in marketing. Marketing literature suggests that formulation and execution of appropriate strategies are very much required in order to survive, grow and to be competitive in the international market places which are highly competitive nowadays; however literature detailing with international business is scarce. This study thus endeavors to fill the gap by integrating different aspects of internationalization/globalization. This study is the outcome of an in depth analysis of different aspects of international business. A good number of books/past research studies between the years 1972 to 2016 are reviewed in order to prepare this literature review and to explore different aspects of international business. The study points out that marketers need to take appropriate decisions on which market(s)/segments to be served, what entry modes to use and how to formulate and implement appropriate marketing strategies so that they can capture market share and/or establish strong foothold in foreign/host countries. The study suggests marketing practitioners some guidelines to formulate right strategies in international marketplaces and extends a direction for new research specifically in the context of developing countries like Bangladesh.
Key words: Internationalization, Globalization, Entry Strategies, Business Strategies, Standardization/Customization., pp.83-119
6. Availability of On-Site Child Care and its Impact on Productivity and Organizational Commitment: A Study on Female Knowledge Workers in Bangladesh
Kishwar Mubin Chowdhury
With the increasing percentage of female knowledge workers entering the workforce in recent times in Bangladesh, it is becoming increasingly important to facilitate the highest possible output from this emerging segment. Availability of childcare support for working mothers is one of the most prominent issues concerning working women in Bangladesh. While developmental and non-government organizations have made major leaps in ensuring on-site child care facilities for thousands of women in the garments sector, other sectors are far behind. The purview of this research, therefore, will be contained within a sample of female knowledge workers who are mothers and the challenges they face regarding child care support which possibly hinder their productivity at work and prevent them from making similar contributions as their male counterparts in similar positions. The research concludes on significant findings on the impact of on-site childcare on female knowledge worker productivity and organizational commitment and offers recommendations to encourage the provision of on-site childcare for companies wishing to capitalize on the time contributed by female knowledge workers at the office.
Keywords: On-site Childcare, Knowledge Workers, Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, Productivity, pp.121-141
7. The Nexus between Green Microfinance and Triple Bottom Line Concept from the Context of a Developing Nation: A Literature Review
Tahsina Khan, Joynal Abedin
In the domain of global development studies, environmental preservation, poverty eradication and energy conservation have received research attention. In recent years, these issues have also been reviewed by the microfinance scholars as ‘green microfinance’ that promotes the concern for environmental responsibility along with the social and financial objectives. This is can be related to the concerns of “people”, “planet” and “profit”, i.e. the “Triple Bottom Line” framework. With this background, this qualitative research emphasizes that green microfinance not only pursues profit, but also upholds ecological balance within businesses, resources, the environment and society. In addition to reviewing the theoretical arguments in the prevailing literature, this article encapsulates the potential benefits that lead micro-finance institutions to engage in green microfinance interventions. In this backdrop, the research provides preliminary insights and groundwork to the target audience of microfinance institutions, renewable energy policy makers and stakeholders to formulate relevant strategic options in sustaining green microfinance ventures.
Key Words: Micro-finance, Green Microfinance, Triple Bottom Line. pp.143-158
8. The Socio-Economic Condition of the Construction Workers of Dhaka City: An Empirical Study
Buddha Dev Biswas, Md. Jahirul Islam
This paper explores the socio-economic condition of the construction workers from Azimpur area in Dhaka city. This study is quantitative in nature. A theoretical framework has been made in this study. Push & Pull Factors and Neoclassical Economic Theory have great relations with the existing research. The study shows that all construction workers are migrants who have migrated from the rural areas to Dhaka city to get jobs. They migrated to Dhaka city because of Push & Pull factors. Though Bangladesh is a densely populated country, the capital is not sufficient for incorporating the rural people in job avenues. Even though some people earn in rural areas, it is insufficient for them. All of these situations have forced the rural people to migrate to Dhaka. Their uneducated status forces them to choose the occupation of daily laborers —regardless of being male and female. The female laborers usually get fewer wages than the male laborers. Besides, both the male and the female laborers are cheated by the employers or the middlemen. The laborers have no fixed wage. They fix it by bargaining with the employers. This study explores the socio-economic situation of this community who work as construction workers through an in-depth investigation.
Key Words: Construction workers, Migration, Puss Factors & Pull Factors, BSS, ILO, Human Rights, NGO, pp.159-178