Revenue Mobilization through Tax: A Comparative Study of Bangladesh and Pakistan
Mohammad Faridul Alam
This paper aims at analyzing and comparing the prevailing tax structure in Bangladesh and Pakistan in terms of their contribution to the economy. The study is based on tax data from 2005-2006 to 2014-2015. The results show that in both the countries Tax GDP ratio is one of the lowest among the SAARC countries. Considering the limited scope of direct taxes, revenue largely depends on indirect taxes like value added tax, customs duty, sales tax and excise tax. Contribution to indirect taxes to total revenue has an erratic trend. The study reflects the issue that tax evasion and avoidance, poor tax administration is the main problem of poor tax performance. But, Bangladesh and Pakistan have a very good opportunity to improve its tax performance by taking necessary reform measures.
Keywords: Tax Structure, Tax revenue. Direct tax, Indirect tax, Tax GDP ratio, pp : 1-19, Click here for more details
Disseminating Renewable Energy Products in Bangladesh: Implications of Solar Home System Adoption in Rural Households
Tahsina Khan, Shamasunnahar Khanam
The electricity sector of Bangladesh suffers from acute problems in terms of insufficient power generation and a lack of distribution infrastructure. In this context, the present study explores the renewable energy interventions to promote rural electrification through Solar Home Systems. By conducting key informant interviews and filed observations, this paper sheds light on the distribution of Solar Home Systems in rural households, most of which have been installed through micro-finance schemes provided the by Government and Non-government organizations. In addition to this, the paper also calls for research attention on the fact that even though the SHS program is commercially viable and socially acceptable, there exits some technical and managerial constraints which should be brought under attention of the policy makers and stakeholder institutions for ensuring the advancement of SHS usage in the rural market. With this backdrop, the research adds value to the present literature in the field of improving rural electrification.
Key Words: Renewable Energy Technology, Solar Home System, Microfinance, Rural Electrification, Rural Households. pp: 21-39, Click here for more details.
Corporate Governance Practices and Financial Crisis
Rumana Afrin, Md. Mohiuddin
With the ongoing global financial distress and recession, the issue of governance mechanism has become even more important and is being highly discussed. Starting with distresses caused by misuse of risk controls for dreadful obligations, collateralization of obligation protection and misrepresentation, significant financial foundations in the United States and Europe confronted a credit crisis and a break in financial movement. The crisis quickly formed and spread into a worldwide financial shock, bringing about various European bank disappointments, decreases in different stock records, and extensive declines in the market estimation of values and items. Corporate Governance (CG) aims to reduce the likelihood of deception, malpractices, monetary frauds and delinquency of management (Ubha and Cahill, 2007). This study analyses the impact of failures and weaknesses in corporate governance on the financial crisis. It concludes that the financial crisis can be to an important extent attributed to failures and weaknesses in corporate governance arrangements which did not serve their purpose to safeguard against excessive risk taking in a number of financial services companies. Accounting standards and regulatory requirements have also proved insufficient in some areas. Last but not least, remuneration systems have in a number of cases not been closely related to the strategy and risk appetite of the company and its longer term interests. The article also suggests that the importance of qualified board oversight and robust risk management is not limited to financial institutions. The remuneration of boards and senior management also remains a highly controversial issue in many countries.
Keywords: Corporate Governance (CG), Finance Crisis, Risk Control System, Transparency, Disclosure, Board Oversight. pp: 41-57, Click here for more details
The Use of Digital Marketing Tactics in Bangladesh Market and Its’ Promotional Effectiveness to the Young Customers of Dhaka City
Partha Prasad Chowdhury
The digital marketing tool is revolutionizing the way the business is conducted nowadays and its use is growing and becoming critically important to the success of business organizations and hence become indispensable tool for today’s business. This research study tries to identify the different digital marketing tools that the marketers use in Bangladesh market and to investigate the promotional effectiveness of these tools to young customers of this market. This study is based upon the empirical findings of a quantitative research where primary data is collected by surveying a structured questionnaire. The study points out that the uses of social media, banner ads, text messages, and sponsorships are comparatively high and are more effective to inform, to persuade and to remind customers about firms’ product offerings to the young customers of Bangladesh market. The study extends a direction for new researchers and concludes with suggestions for further research and suggests managers of Bangladesh to focus on using key digital tools to promote firms’ product offerings.
Key words: Digital marketing tools, Promotional effectiveness, Bangladesh marketplace. pp: 59-74, Click here for more details
Impact of CRM, IMC, and PE on Purchase Intentions: Evidence from the Real Estate Market of Bangladesh
A K M Kamrul Haque , Md. Khaled Amin and Asif Parvez
This study sought to identify the relative roles of Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC), Customer Referral Campaign (CRC) and Perceived Experience (PE) in the formation of the Purchase Intentions (PI) of Bangladeshi consumers. A total of 111respondents were literally categorized into apartment owners and prospective buyers, were eventually surveyed with the structured and self-administrated questionnaires followed by few in-depth interviews. The results of the study suggest that the three variables; CRM, IMC and PE appear to have significant direct impact on the formation of the Purchase Intentions (PI) of the apartment in Dhaka city. Conversely, CRC found to have no effect on the Purchase Intention (PI).
Key words: CRC, CRM, IMC, Purchase Intention (PI), Word of Mouth (WOM), pp: 17-89, Click here for more details
Human Resource Accounting: Methods & Practices in Bangladesh
Sutapa Bhattacharjee, Reefat Zaman and ShourovA.K.M. Jakaria Khan
Human resource is considered to be the most crucial and important asset of an organization since it controls all other resources. Usually, human resource was being ignored by traditional accounting since there was no scientific method to measure the value of human asset in monetary terms. Efforts, since 1960s, has been put forth to develop a mechanism to resolve the issue. Along with developing different mechanism, researchers became interested in a new field of study-human resource accounting. Now, human resource accounting encompasses the entire process of identifying and measuring data about human resources and communicating this information to interested parties. Both cost based and value based models are being used for human resource accounting. This paper aims to study the methods and practices of Human Resources Accounting in Bangladesh. A survey of the HR executives at different levels in the organizations of Bangladesh has been conducted for this purpose. The study reveals that, in Bangladesh, human resource accounting is yet to be spread out. The top management of some companies are not likely to take HRA practices with great importance. But the perception of HRA practices among Bangladeshi Nationals has been found to be positive.
Keywords: Human Resource Accounting, Cost Models of HRA, Value Models of HRA, HRA Practices. pp:91-112, Click here for more details
Analyzing the Role of E-Marketing in the Consumer Decision Making Stages of Personal Electronic Products based on Dhaka City Consumers
Md. Iftekherul Amin, Akif Ahmed and Syeda Mahrufa Bashar
With Mobile Connectivity and Internet Penetration, more and more people, especially the urban classes are spending more time online and are exposed to different e-marketing activities. Internet is changing their mindset, also empowering them to make further informed decision. E-marketing is not only informing the customers about the product but also is playing crucial persuading and reminder role in all the Customer Decision Making Stages. This study examines the role of e-marketing in different CDP stages and customer empowerment as a whole from the perspective of urban customers. Though the industry is growing fast, e-marketing is still a mystery to the marketers and the factor dynamics (relation with customer preference) is not backed by research. This study would help the marketers to create focused activity plan while working with promotional activity based on this research.
Key words: e-marketing, Dot Com Bubble, CDP Model, Digital marketing, e-commerce. pp : 113-128, Click here for more details
Effective Job Satisfaction Model for a Commercial Bank in Bangladesh: A Case Study on City Bank Ltd.
Pinky Akter, Md Tapan Mahmud
An effective job satisfaction model allows any organization to attain a complete as well as accurate comprehension of the psychological attitudes of their employees across two dimensions, namely, the degree of importance assigned by them to the critical factors or constituents of job satisfaction; and, the nature and degree of their satisfaction with such factors. ‘Satisfaction-Importance (S-I)’ model is taken as a reference (for policy recommendation) for this study. The understanding of the satisfaction-importance dynamics by virtue of the said model would enable the City Bank management to make appropriate decisions with regards to the job satisfaction factors resulting in requisite motivation on the part of their employees. A quantitative research design combined with a number of in-depth interviews and a small scale search of the database of the City Bank employees have driven the outcome of this study. The data were collected mainly by a questionnaire consisting of instruments pertaining to importance and satisfaction ratings of the job satisfaction factors. Results and analysis reveal that both senior and middle managers value the six job satisfaction factors or constituents highly to extremely highly; and are adequately satisfied. The first line managers, however, offer reasons for concern. The model devised would, hopefully, allow the City Bank management to overcome any areas of concern via effective and efficient decisions, since it enables a clear and comprehensive identification of the strategic human resource implications for the City Bank Ltd.
Keywords: Job satisfaction, Satisfaction-Importance model, Strategic human resource implications. pp: 129-152, Click here for more details
Islamic Banking in Bangladesh: Challenges and Prospects
Jubairul Islam Shaown, Yesmin Sultana
Starting its journey in 1983, Islamic banking has been gaining increasing market share of the total banking industry; 8 full-fledged Islamic banks, along with 19 Islamic banking branches and 25 Islamic banking windows, hold more than 20% market share in total banking deposits and 23% in credit. This percentage of share has made Bangladesh one of the 12 systematically important jurisdictions in the world. This industry, compared to its conventional counterpart, is also performing well in many aspects such as ROI and NPL. The scenario changes when the banking scenario of other Muslim countries with similar demographics and economic status are compared with. The Islamic banking scenario in Bangladesh could be made more robust if the challenges in the way were properly addressed. The absence of a comprehensive Shariah based framework to bring all the related industry players under one umbrella is one of the most crucial factors hindering growth. Terrorist financing propaganda, lack of diversified service portfolio, insufficient product innovation and absence of skills and product knowledge training are few of the other challenges to be addressed. Even though, throughout the world, 60% of the Islamic banking customers are non-Muslims, in Bangladesh, this segment is not yet targeted as the Islamic products are, even now, offered to customers using religious appeal rather than pitching product qualities and professional benefit. If Bangladesh is to reach its fullest potential in this segment of banking, steps from multiple front need to be taken. The untapped non-Muslim customer segment penetration can be the first step. Partnering with NGOs and thus tapping further into micro-finance, public project financing through Shariah based syndication, creating a corporate governance culture by training Islamic finance analysts, and bringing in stress testing modules to check the resilience of Islamic banking in the country for different categories of financing are the few ways towards further growth in this industry. In order to bring out the potential growth, there has to be a strategic time bound roadmap setting out all the landmarks to be achieved.
Keywords: participatory banking, systematically important jurisdiction, Shariah, riba, Suku. pp : 153-174, Click here for more details