AIUB Journal of Business and Economics

Volume: 12, Issue: 1

Publication Date: 30th November, 2015

ISSN 1683-8742 (Print)                                                 ISSN (online): 2706-7076

 

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Tax System in Bangladesh: Towards Tax Justice

Rubayyat Hashmi*, Mohammad Habibullah Pulok, Moin Uddin Ahmed

Abstract

The baseline survey investigates the opinion of grass-root people about their understanding on knowledge, attitude and practice of tax system of Bangladesh. The general understanding of TAX and VAT is common for people but because of not taking VAT receipt VAT paid by the people might not go to state treasury. Study indicates that government should put high VAT on luxury goods and lower VAT on necessary goods rather than a uniform VAT system. In addition the government also should increase direct tax base so that deadweight loss of the society is reduced.

Key Words: Tax justice, VAT, Direct tax, KAP, Fairness, Equity, Luxury goods,

Keywords: Role of Human Resource Management in Corporate Governance: A Critical Literature Review, pp. 1-20, click here for full paper.


Role of Human Resource Management in Corporate Governance: A Critical Literature Review

Sutapa Bhattacharjee*, Rumana Afrin, Md. Mohiuddin

Abstract

Corporate Governance (CG) is concerned with the direction and control of the corporation (Supangco, 2006). This paper has reviewed related literature to indicate how modern corporations organize their relations with stakeholders along with issues of ownership and control within the firm. It has revealed the impacts of CG on the effectiveness of Human Resource Management (HRM) practices in achieving the productive objectives to which they have been set. The paper found that the national-level system of finance and CG also have an influence on labor management within the firm because of the relative importance national systems assign to such things as labor interests, time frames, strategy types, financial measures of performance, the use of market- based instruments to secure commitment and the extent of employer co- ordination. It has also discussed the linkage between forms of CG and labor management along with the relative importance of HRM in relation to CG and organizational performance. This paper has recognized how agency theory, stewardship theory, stakeholder theory are dominating the rise of governance in modern corporations in recent times along with institutional theory and resource based theory of the firm. Last but not the least, the paper emphasized on the relationship between CG and HRM after the problems of Enron and recent financial scandals such as “Madoff Affair”. In a nutshell, the present paper argues that the most appropriate strategy in HRM research is to acknowledge the importance of both, internal firm resources and external features of the business environment, thus, drawing on the connection with CG.

Key Words: Corporate Governance, Human Resource Management, Role, pp. 21-45, click here for full paper


An Empirical Examination of Random Walk Hypothesis for Chittagong Stock Exchange

Md. Tapan Mahmud*, Abu Sadat Muhammad Ashif

Abstract

A capital market will play as a strong catalyst in the industrialization and economic development of the country.The Chittagong Stock Exchange (CSE) is a new and emerging stock exchange located in the port city of Chittagong in southeastern Bangladesh. This paper investigates whether the stock price index in the Chittagong Securities Market meets the criterion of weak-form market efficiency. This study seeks evidence supporting the existence of market efficiency in the Chittagong Stock Exchange Ltd (CSE).In this paper; we have analyzed the behavior of daily return of Chittagong Stock Market indices. The sample includes the daily price indices of all securities listed on the CSE All Share Index, CSE 30 index, and CSCX indices listed in the Chittagong stock market. The results from the unit root test, the ADF test on CSE All Share Index, CSE 30 index, and CSCX provide evidence that the Chittagong stock exchange (CSE) is not efficient even in weak form and CSE does not follow the random walk model. 

Key Words: Efficient Market Hypothesis, Random walk model, Chittagong Stock Exchange, pp. 47-60, click here for full paper.


Feminist Analysis of Organizations:  A Theoretical Perspective

Shakila Yasmin*

Abstract

Organizational studies and feminist theories have long been detached due to their distinctive interest areas. Feminist scholars, only in the late 1960s and early 1970s, have condemned traditional organizational research to ignore issues of gender in working life. However, researches till date reveal that the gendered norms of ‘ideal workers’, the gendered division of labor are still prevalent and gender inequality has been institutionalized in organizations. Therefore, it’s legitimate to evaluate theories of organization from feminist perspective, such that an alternative gender neutral model of organization can be conceived. The objective of this paper is to identify existing theories about gender inequality in organizations.  Based on secondary literature, seven major feminist approaches to organizations have been evaluated in terms of their argument and prescriptions for achieving gender equality. Liberal and psychoanalytic feminist approaches are transformative and mild, compared to others. Marxists frame gender difference as synonym to class struggle. Socialists on the contrary argue that a dual interlinked system of women’s oppression (capitalism and patriarchy) exist. Radicalists theorize sex to be the core of all sorts of oppression. They challenge all sex-based structures and take a separatist move.  By examining multiple marginality and subordination of the third world women, post-modern and post-colonial feminists argue that previous feminists were focused only on the privileged women of developed economies. In terms of organizational practices, post-moderns and post-colonials prescribe a contingency approach, as such to take into account hybridity of identities.

Key Words: Feminism, Gender, Organizations, pp. 61-79, click here for full paper.


Analyzing the Changes of Preference Factors of Billboard by the Gender, Age & Occupation of Customer: A Study on Dhaka City

Easnin Ara*, Ayeasha Akhter, Md. Ariful Hoque

Abstract

This study is associated with billboard advertising. The purpose of the research is to find out how the preference factor of billboard that attracts the customer’s attention fluctuates from customer to customer by demographic variables - gender, age and occupation as advertising in Dhaka city. The major discoveries of the report are that large size of billboard which is a factor of attracting customer’s attention toward billboard, attracts the attention of aged people more than the young people and the jobholders more than the students. Creativeness of billboard is another factor that attracts the jobholders more than the students. Bright color is the factor that attracts aged person more than the young person and jobholders more than the students. Simple, short and clear text factor attracts aged people more than the young people and the jobholders more than the students. Image is the other factor attracting aged person more than the young person and jobholders more than the students. More students are attracted by billboard advertisement of shopping area (another factor) than the job holders. The extension of billboard attracts the attention of aged people more than the young people and jobholders more than the students. The last variable product message was independent to their gender, independent to their age and independent to their occupation.

Key Words: Billboards, Attention, Preference Factors, Advertising, pp. 81-100, click here for full paper.


An Analysis of the Importance of Validity and Reliability as Measurement Standards of Selection Processes

Anisa Sultana*

Abstract

This paper shows that Validity and reliability of selection methods not only ensures the right candidate to get the job but also remain responsible to predict the job performance of the newly hired employees. The paper also examines the application and the co efficiency of the selection methods and further explains why sometimes both of these are lost. By discussing various traditional selection methods, this paper argues that a valid and reliable test, structured interview and unbiased interviewers are the most important elements of a successful selection strategy. In addition, it explicates that though other measures like Generalizability, Utility and Legality are sometimes considered to assess the selection outcome yet their importance as measurement standard of selection methods is not as high as reliability and validity. The paper ends with the discussion of the limitations and finally, further research directions are suggested.

Key Words: Reliability, Validity, Selection methods, Measurement standards, pp. 101-114, click here for full paper.


A Paradigm Shift in Poverty Alleviation through ‘Micro Credit’

Md. Safayat Hossain*

Abstract

This study aims to replicate the concept of paradigm shift in science, coined by Professor Thomas Khun, with the concept of Micro-credit postulated by noble laureate Professor Yunus. As science shifts its paradigm pursuing the efforts of revolutionary scientist working outside the old theorems, in the same way, the concept of providing credit was transformed following the idea of Professor Yunus. The old theory of providing credit required so called feature of possessing “credit-worthiness”; whereas, Professor Yunus stated this perception as the igniter of vicious cycle of poverty and suggested for micro-credit. Micro-credit plan not only provides loan to the poor having no credit-worthiness, but also, aids them with credit management and supervision. Adding to the said note, Professor Yunus also compared the poverty stricken people with bonsai tree; on the point of having no opportunity for them, in our society to grow bigger. 

Key Words: Paradigm shift, Micro credit, Social revolution, pp. 115-128, click here for full paper.